Als Vichy-Regime bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français nach der mit dem Waffenstillstand vom Juni anerkannten militärischen Niederlage gegen das Deutsche Reich. Mit dem Verfassungsgesetz vom Juli löste das. Staatschef des von der Wehrmacht besetzten Frankreich und residiert mit seinem Regime aus Nazi-Kollaborateuren und Faschisten in Vichy. Wie die Franzosen im Zweiten Weltkrieg unter der damaligen Vichy-Regierung mit den Nazis kollaborierten.
Vichy Regime Drei-Gänge-Menüs auf dem Schloss, Hunger in der Stadt
Als Vichy-Regime (französisch Régime de Vichy) bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français („Französischer Staat“) nach der mit dem. Als Vichy-Regime bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français nach der mit dem Waffenstillstand vom Juni anerkannten militärischen Niederlage gegen das Deutsche Reich. Mit dem Verfassungsgesetz vom Juli löste das. Das Vichy-Regime. Philippe Petain, um Der aufgrund der französischen Niederlage während der deutschen Westoffensive am Juni im Wald von. Wie die Franzosen im Zweiten Weltkrieg unter der damaligen Vichy-Regierung mit den Nazis kollaborierten. Staatschef des von der Wehrmacht besetzten Frankreich und residiert mit seinem Regime aus Nazi-Kollaborateuren und Faschisten in Vichy. Nach der vorläufigen Niederlage Frankreichs im Zweiten Weltkrieg entstand das Vichy-Regime, das mit den Nationalsozialisten kollaborierte. Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab?
Das Vichy-Regime. Philippe Petain, um Der aufgrund der französischen Niederlage während der deutschen Westoffensive am Juni im Wald von. Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab? Staatschef des von der Wehrmacht besetzten Frankreich und residiert mit seinem Regime aus Nazi-Kollaborateuren und Faschisten in Vichy. One colony in French Equatorial AfricaGabonhad to be occupied by military force between 27 October and 12 November Boogeyman Stream Attempts to negotiate the point with Germany proved unsuccessful, and the French decided not to press the issue to the point of refusing the Armistice. This occurred through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle. In Octoberthe military forces of Thailand attacked across the border with Indochina and launched the Franco-Thai War. Middle Ages. Die Insel Der Besonderen Kindern Stream Movie4k 25 October The police arrested 12, Jews Tvnow Rtl including 4, children which the Let It Shine Zeig Was Du Kannst Stream had not asked for — 5, women and 3, men, all sent to Drancy. London: Routledge. In the same way as the necessities of war economy during the first World War I had pushed toward state measures which organized the economy of France against the prevailing classical liberal theories, an organization Vichy Regime was retained after the Treaty of Versailles, reforms adopted during WWII were kept and extended. As France has slowly come to terms with its role in the Holocaust and the willing collaboration of the Vichy government, citizens have struggled with what that legacy means for them. Nach der erfolgreichen alliierten Paula Rowe Kostenlos in der Normandie wurden Phyllis Davis Mitglieder des Vichy-Regimes im August zwangsweise in das Schloss Sigmaringen gebracht. Association X-Resistance. That blame fell squarely on the shoulders of Communists, socialists and Jews. One Senator and 26 Deputies were on the Massilia. April Elective bodies were replaced by nominated ones. Die Vichy-Regierung in Frankreich | Nach der Eroberung Frankreichs wird eine von Deutschland abhängig und arbeitete eng mit dem NS-Regime zusammen. VICHY-REGIME Verdrängter Haß er es ablehnt, in dem Weltkrieg-I-Marschall Pétain und den Ministern des Vichy-Regimes Verräter an Frankreich zu sehen. Vichy-Regime. Die „Vichy-Regierung“ hatte eine Sonderstellung unter den von Nazideutschland besetzten Ländern: Die im zentralfranzösischen Vichy.
La police est bonne. Nous allons lui passer le mors et travailler avec elle seule. Ce sera une alliance avec la police! Darlan pousse la politique de collaboration un peu plus loin que ne l'a fait Laval en essayant de pratiquer avec Hitler la politique du donnant-donnant.
En novembre , les Allemands envahissent la zone sud. En septembre Laval ne pose plus aux Allemands la question sur ce que vont devenir les Juifs, mais leur demande ce qu'il faut dire.
D'autres sont accueillis dans des familles [ ]. Les trois quarts venaient de la zone nord et le quart restant de la zone sud [ ].
Vichy fut toujours et demeure nul et non avenu. Pourquoi irais-je la proclamer? Wikimedia Commons. Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion.
Pierre Laval. Voir aussi La presse collaborationniste et La presse clandestine. Votre aide est la bienvenue! Comment faire? Jean-Paul Jean dir.
Jacques Cantier dir. Laurent Gervereau dir. Serge Klarsfeld , Vichy-Auschwitz , t. Michael R. Marrus et Robert O.
Paxton trad. Oldenbourg, coll. Peter Lieb et Robert O. The Germans seized about twenty percent of the French food production, causing severe disruption to the French household economy.
The government answered by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting youth in urban areas.
The queues lengthened in front of shops. Some people—including German soldiers—benefited from the black market, where food was sold without tickets at very high prices.
Farmers especially diverted meat to the black market, which meant that much less for the open market. Counterfeit food tickets were also in circulation.
Direct buying from farmers in the countryside and barter against cigarettes became common. These activities were strictly forbidden, and thus carried the risk of confiscation and fines.
Food shortages were most acute in the large cities. In the more remote country villages, clandestine slaughtering, vegetable gardens and the availability of milk products permitted better survival.
The official ration provided starvation level diets of one thousand thirteen or fewer calories a day, supplemented by home gardens and, especially, black market purchases.
The two million French soldiers held as POWs and forced labourers in Germany throughout the war were not at risk of death in combat but the anxieties of separation for their , wives were high.
The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families. Meanwhile, the Vichy regime promoted a highly traditional model of female roles.
It gave women a key symbolic role to carry out the national regeneration. It used propaganda, women's organisations, and legislation to promote maternity, patriotic duty, and female submission to marriage, home, and children's education.
It introduced family allowances and opposed birth control and abortion. Conditions were very difficult for housewives, as food was short as well as most necessities.
Divorce laws were made much more stringent, and restrictions were placed on the employment of married women. Family allowances that had begun in the s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children.
In the birth rate started to rise, and by it was higher than it had been for a century. On the other side women of the Resistance, many of whom were associated with combat groups linked to the French Communist Party PCF , broke the gender barrier by fighting side by side with men.
After the war, their services were ignored, but France did give women the vote in Hitler ordered Case Anton to occupy Corsica and then the rest of the unoccupied southern zone in immediate reaction to the landing of the Allies in North Africa Operation Torch on 8 November Following the conclusion of the operation on 12 November, Vichy's remaining military forces were disbanded.
Vichy continued to exercise its remaining jurisdiction over almost all of metropolitan France, with the residual power devolved into the hands of Laval, until the gradual collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June On 7 September , following the Allied invasion of France, the remainders of the Vichy government cabinet fled to Germany and established a puppet government in exile in the so-called Sigmaringen enclave.
That rump government finally fell when the city was taken by the Allied French army in April Part of the residual legitimacy of the Vichy regime resulted from the continued ambivalence of U.
Darlan was neutralised within 15 hours by a strong French resistance force. De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa.
Before that, the first return of democracy to Metropolitan France since had occurred with the declaration of the Free Republic of Vercors on 3 July , at the behest of the Free French government —but that act of resistance was quashed by an overwhelming German attack by the end of July.
Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville , the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis.
On 21 April General de Lattre ordered his forces to take Sigmaringen. The end came within days. Other members escaped to Italy or Spain.
The Vichy regime was no more. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France.
The provisional government considered the Vichy government to have been unconstitutional and all its actions therefore without legitimate authority.
All "constitutional acts, legislative or regulatory" taken by the Vichy government, as well as decrees taken to implement them, were declared null and void by the Order of 9 August Inasmuch as blanket rescission of all acts taken by Vichy i.
Many acts were explicitly repealed, including all acts that Vichy had called "constitutional acts", all acts that discriminated against Jews, all acts related to so-called "secret societies" e.
The provisional government also took steps to replace local governments, including governments that had been suppressed by the Vichy regime, through new elections or by extending the terms of those who had been elected not later than After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists.
Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Germans, or more often [ citation needed ] of being prostitutes who had entertained German customers, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved.
Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatised as "war profiteers" profiteurs de guerre , and popularly called "BOF" Beurre Oeuf Fromage , or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation.
Many convicted Collaborationists were then given amnesty under the Fourth Republic — He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.
In the police, some collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, [ citation needed ] in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon when Charles de Gaulle was head of state.
Papon was tried and convicted for crimes against humanity in Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina —54 with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.
Among artists, singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison , where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs.
Pierre Benoit and Arletty were also detained. The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians.
Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands [ citation needed ] , but the situation in Belgium was not comparable as it mixed collaboration with elements of a war of secession: The invasion prompted the Flemish population to generally side with the Germans in the hope of gaining national recognition, and relative to national population a much higher proportion of Belgians than French thus ended up collaborating with the Nazis or volunteering to fight alongside them;   The Walloon population in turn led massive anti-Flemish retribution after the war, some of which, such as the execution of Irma Swertvaeger Laplasse , remained controversial.
The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany.
The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists.
Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts.
A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil.
Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.
While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy.
In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand. The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July speech.
The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps.
President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust.
Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France. As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away".
Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust.
Three main periods have been distinguished in the historiography of Vichy: first the Gaullist period, which aimed at national reconciliation and unity under the figure of Charles de Gaulle, who conceived himself above political parties and divisions; then the s, with Marcel Ophüls 's film The Sorrow and the Pity ; finally the s, with the trial of Maurice Papon , civil servant in Bordeaux in charge of the "Jewish Questions" during the war, who was convicted after a very long trial — for crimes against humanity.
The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration's collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews.
Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years.
Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka.
While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated.
Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews.
One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed.
Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules.
Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building.
Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one.
This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews.
This argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus.
Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space.
After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens  ".
Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order".
But "Hitler never forgot the defeat. He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country.
On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front.
The war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews". This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate.
This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:.
The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them?
Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:.
Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews. At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable.
Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation. Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was subsequently invaded by Germany.
Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans.
More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews.
Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves.
It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy.
Many had been at Drancy for several months. They had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find.
Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly. Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them.
Röthke also wanted to empty Drancy in order to refill it. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January.
Deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started. More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vichy disambiguation. German military occupation zone. French protectorates.
The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allied powers. Client state of Germany — Puppet state of Germany — Government-in-exile — Vichy de facto Paris a de jure.
Paris remained the formal capital of the French State, although the Vichy government never operated from there. Although the French Republic's institutions were officially maintained, the word "Republic" never occurred in any official document of the Vichy government.
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